Could Be [Even] Worse: 2 Real Oil Spill Scenarios May 10, 2010Posted by Jamie Friedland in Offshore Drilling, Politics.
Tags: 2010 oil, Blowout Preventer, BP, Deepwater Horizon, Exxon Valdez, Gulf of Mexico, loop current, Offshore Drilling, Oil, Oil Spill
The failure of BP’s containment dome Sunday offers some dark certainty to an ongoing catastrophe rife with questions: at least now we now know that oil will continue to gush into the Gulf of Mexico for at least the next few months. No more false hope that this will be short-term. That’s something, right?
This oil spill is already worst in America’s history – 2 times over. The latest estimate (Sunday, May 9th) put the spill, conservatively, at 21 million gallons total with 1.1 million more gallons gushing each day. At that rate, by the end of Monday, May 10th, BP will have lapped Exxon Valdez’s 11 million gallons spilled. And at this rate, another Exxon Valdez will be spilled approximately every 11 days until they can get this well under control.
As the multi-month relief well is drilled, there are two scenarios to watch for that could actually make this spill even more devastating:
1) Oil reaching the Florida Keys and the East Coast via the “Loop Current”
2) An unchecked gusher
East Coast Oil Outlook
You may have heard that the oil spilling into the Gulf of Mexico could actually reach the East Coast. Let’s call this “nightmare scenario #1” (as if the realized prospect of a multi-month oil spill wasn’t bad enough). For what its worth, it is unlikely that oil will reach the East Coast in the next few weeks, but it becomes a very real threat now that we know this spill will continue for months.
The Gulf of Mexico’s “Loop Current” is a warm water current that flows north between the Yucatan peninsula and Cuba. It flows up through the Gulf, down and around the Florida Keys, and then up the Eastern seaboard past Cape Hatteras, NC. Were oil to enter the current, it could definitely flow around to the East Coast.
At the moment, the southern edge of the spill is about 100 miles northeast of the Loop Current. It would take the spill at least 2 days of strong winds from the north to reach the current. It’s hardly a blessing, but the winds that are expected to blow the oil ashore this week are blowing the spill further from the current. Current current forecasts (hah) suggest that this won’t happen for at least the next 10 days.
The good news is that as summer moves in, the chances of sustained winds from the north decrease. Meteorologist Dr. Jeff Masters, whom I have to thank for my understanding of this phenomenon, says there is a 40% chance that the cold front required for those winds could move into position by the end of June. It is probable that such a cold front will not arrive until October. But we are not in the clear.
A tropical storm or hurricane could push the oil slick into the Loop Current: if a tropical storm hits the panhandle of Florida, this scenario will likely become reality with counter-clockwise storm winds sweeping down off the coast to the west of the storm’s eye and pushing the oil we now know will be there further south. Long story short, Dr. Masters only predicts a 20% chance of such a storm in June, but drilling a relief well takes at least 2-3 months, so we will likely have plenty of oil around after June.
Especially if nightmare scenario #2 takes hold.
An Unchecked Gusher
A leaked confidential government report dated April 28 and referred to as “report No. 12” first raised concerns about this scenario.
Obviously, this wellhead is out of control, but even the failed blowout preventer, stuck with its valves open, is restricting the flow of escaping oil by creating a bottleneck. Think about all the water in huge water main beneath the streets compared to how little comes out of your faucet even with it all the way open.
Additionally, there are purportedly kinks in the pipeline that are likely to be further reducing the amount of oil that is escaping. This is not to say that projections are overestimating the amount of oil escaping (the opposite is in fact likely). Rather, the flow would be considerably greater were those restrictions not there. And this scenario is possible.
The current flow rate is estimated to be 26,500 barrels/day (1.1 million gallons/day). Unfortunately, there is concern that if this spill continues for an extended period of time (as we now know it will), the wellhead could actually fail.
Recall that this oil and gas is under so much pressure that when the blowout preventer first failed, those hydrocarbons shot to the surface in seconds with enough force to blow through metal. That pressure is still there. The liquid that is moving through the pipe and blowout preventer as it gushes is moving very quickly and forcefully, and it is also carrying sand. The sand particles shooting through the pipes are constantly wearing them down, eroding them like a sandblaster. As the metal gets essentially sanded down, the longer this spill goes unchecked, the greater the likelihood is that some critical piping will fail altogether.
Losing a wellhead, unlike having a failed blowout preventer cause a huge oil spill, actually IS unprecedented. However, it is thought that were this nightmare scenario to occur, the spill rate could increase to 150,000 barrels (6 million gallons) or more each day. At that point, we would be facing 4 Exxon Valdez’s each week, again, for literally months. If that happens, it seems to me that oil ends up on the East Coast no matter what we do. Let’s hope it doesn’t come to this.
Full list of oil spill questions and answers here.